It shall be the duty of every citizen of India—

 (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

 (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;

 (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

 (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

 (e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;

 (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

 (g) to protect and improve the Fundamental_duties including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;

 (h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;

 (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

 (j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;

 (k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

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